Hunting For the Immune Cells That Lead Severe COVID-19

Victim of immune cells that leads to severe COVID-19

Asst. Professor. Hanhuan Joyce-chan of Pritzker Health Engineering conducted a new research that suggests that the type of microphages in a person’s body can determine how likely they are to develop severe inflammation in response to COVID-19. University of Chicago Pritzker School of Health Engineering researchers point to microphones. When a virus enters a person’s body, one of the immune system’s first responders is a set of roggen-removing cells called microphages. But microphages are diverse.

Scientists from the Pritzker School of Health Engineering at the University of Chicago have discovered that the type of microphages in a person’s body can determine how likely they are to develop severe inflammation in response to COVID-19. His study was recently published in the journal Nature Communications.
“Clinicians know that the severity of COVID-19 disease can cause mild to severe symptoms.” The assistant said, because some people, and others don’t, develop very severe illness, it’s been a mystery. Prof. Hanhuan Joyce Chan, who led the research along Keijou Lane of Hong Kong University. “This is the first time someone has linked variation in symptoms to macrophages.”

A better model of COVID – 19 infection

Studying the cellular and health effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been difficult for researchers who usually turn to model biology to mimic human diseases, because rats, and many other animals are the same as humans COVID – 19 does not produce symptoms. That’s why, immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic began, Joyce Chin Lab used human stem cells to study the virus.

Joyce china lab prevention or acute aid treatment – 19

New findings from Joyce Chin Lab – could inform prevention or treatment of COVID-19 in extreme risk patients. Up, Asst. Prof. Chan works with postdoctoral researchers Abhimanu Thakur (left) and Koi Jong (right).
As previously reported in Nature, Chin and his colleagues expanded stem cells into functioning mini-lungs and colons—lungs and large intestine organoids—to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on those organs and Virus to be treated on screen medicines.

In new research, researchers first analyzed lung biopsies from COVID-19 patients and discovered that they had particularly high levels of microphages. To better understand the role of microphages during COVID-19 infection, Chin’s team developed an approach that could benefit from a single line of human stem cells to form both lung cells and microphages simultaneously. The fact that they were born from the same early stem cells to protect immune cells from attacking lung cells. “This model provides an excellent way to decode the system, step-by-step, how the three components — the immune system, lungs and virus — are interactive, Chan said.

A fountain of inflammation

When Chin’s lab infected stem cells—dry lungs and microphages with SARS-CoV-2, they found that not all microphages responded the same way. A subset, called M2 microphages, eliminates the virus by releasing anti inflammatory bacteria, physically enhancing the virus and the virus.

M1 microphages reacted the opposite way: these cells released an abundance of inflammatory chemical signals that not only fight SARS – CoV – 2, but cause a wider immune response.  Effects of SARS – CoV – 2 on lungs and colon orchids. Asst. Prof. Chan, a graduate student working here with Jinguin Soo, examined the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on lungs and large intestine organids in a previous study.

“Our findings suggest that people who already have M1 macrophages activated in their lungs are more likely to develop severe inflammation from the virus when they get infected with COVID-19, Chan said.
Elderly people and people with certain conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes — already more severe COVID-19 symptoms — can suffer from higher levels of M1 microphages, he added.

His team went on to demonstrate that antibodies—like those already medically used COVID-19—assisted M2 microphages wiped out the SARS-CoV-2 virus. More work needs to be done to show whether the observations are accurate in humans, but these findings — could help inform the prevention or treatment of extreme COVID-19 in at risk patients. And Chin is already thinking about his next experiments with stem cell-derived organids.
“This model system is useful not only for regulating the health mechanism behind COVID-19, Chan said.
In the future, his group hopes to create more complex mini — organs that include not only the lungs and immune cells, but blood vessels, nerves and other support cell types.

Reference: Various effects of “CARS-CV-2 Infection in Human Pulurptent Stem Cells – Derived Model” Keizhou Lin, Qui Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Pheu Duan, Lian Gu, Viren Lu, Babu Wing Yi Mok, Abimano Thakur, Zhaushan Ki, Pedram Motelbanjad, Vlad Nikolsuko, Jonathan Chan, Choi Yan Ma, Zhauya Chow, Shu Han, Tang Han, Wei Zhang, Adrian Yi. Tan, Tu Zhang, Zing Wang, Dong Soo, Jennie Xiang, Amin Soo, Ken Liao, Feng Ping Huang, or Wen Chan, Gina, Glenn Randall, Hung <TAG1) Fat Ts, Xiwi-Chin, Yin-Chin and Huanhuan Joyce-Chin, April 19, 2022, Nature Communication.

Funding: National Institute of Health, Cancer Research Foundation Young Investigator Award, Janet D. Rawali Discovery Fund, Hong Kong Health and Medical Research Fund, Guang Women’s and Children’s Medical Center, Shenzhen Science and Technology Program, Shinghu University Spring Breeze Fund, National R&D China’s Program and China’s National Natural Science Grant.

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