Nanoparticle Sensor Can Distinguish Between Viral and Bacterial Pneumonia
Viral vs. bacterial pneumonia infection sensor
MIT researchers have designed a sensor that can differentiate between viral and bacterial pneumonia infections. In the background, the virus is depicted on the left, and on the right are bacteria. Credits: Jose – Luis Oliveris, MIT
Doctors can use this diagnosis to avoid prescribing antibiotics in cases where they may not be effective.
Pneumonia can be caused by many different types of bacteria and viruses, but there’s no easy way to determine whether the microbes are causing a particular patient’s illness. Choosing effective treatment for doctors makes this uncertainty difficult because antibiotics commonly used to treat bacterial pneumonia will not help viral pneumonia patients. Furthermore, limiting antibiotic use is an important step towards preventing antibiotic resistance.
Researchers at MIT have now designed a sensor that can differentiate between viral and bacterial pneumonia infections, which they hope will help doctors choose the right treatment.
“The challenge is that there are so many different diseases that can cause different types of pneumonia, and even with the most extensive and most advanced testing, the specific disease causing one’s disease is identified in nearly half of patients.” Can’t be. “And if you treat viral pneumonia with antibiotics, you could contribute to antibiotic resistance, which is a huge problem, and the patient will not get better,” says Sanjita Bhatia, the founder of Health Sciences and Technology and Dorothy Wilson Professor and Member of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT and Coach at the Institute for Integrity Cancer Research and Institute of Medical Engineering and Science.
In a study of mice, researchers showed their sensors could accurately detect bacterial and viral pneumonia within two hours, using a simple urine test to read the results. Bhatia is the senior author of the study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on June 13, 2022. Melody Anter ’16, PhD ’22 is the main author of the paper.
Signs of infection
One of the reasons why viral and bacterial pneumonia can be difficult is that there are many germs that can cause pneumonia, including streptococcus pneumonia and hemophilus influenza, and viruses like influenza and respiratory syndrome (RSV). While designing their sensor, the research team decided to focus on measuring the host’s reaction to infection, rather than trying to detect the roggen themselves. Viral and bacterial infections give birth to certain types of immune reactions, including the activation of particles called proteins, which break down proteins. The MIT team found that the activity sample of these gums could act as a signature of bacterial or viral infection.
The human genome encodes more than 500 proteins, and many of them are used by cells that respond to infection, including T-cells, neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells. A team led by Prosh Khatri, an associate professor of medicine at Stanford University and biomedical data science and one of the authors of this paper, gathered 33 publicly available datasets of gene that appear during respiratory infections. By analyzing these data, Khatri was able to identify 39 proteins that respond differently to different types of infections.
Bhatia and her students then used that data to create 20 different sensors that can communicate with these protheses. The sensor consists of nepo particles coated with peptides that can be cleaned by specific proteins. Each peptide is labelled with a Reporter Inu that releases when the peptides are cleaned by proteins that control infection. Those reporters finally pass out in the piss. The urine can then be analyzed with mass spectometry to determine which proteins are most active in the lungs.
Researchers tested their sensors in five different mouse models of pneumonia, caused by infections like stratococcus pneumonia, calypcella pneumonia, hemophilis influenza, influenza virus, and rat pneumonia virus infections. After reading the results of a urine test, researchers used machine learning to analyze the data. Using this perspective, they’ve managed to train algorithms that can differentiate between pneumonia vs. healthy control, and also differentiate whether the infection was viral or bacterial based on those 20 sensors.
The researchers also found that their sensors could differentiate between the five pathogens they tested, but with less accuracy than the test to differentiate between viruses and bacteria. Researchers are likely to develop algorithms that can not only distinguish bacteria from viral infection, but also identify the class of germs that cause bacterial infection, making doctors the best antibiotic for dealing with this type of bacteria K of Can help you to choose.
Like a urine-based redout pregnancy test, it’s also viable for future detection with a paper strip, which allows for -point of care diagnosis. For that purpose, researchers identified a sub-set of five sensors that could keep home inspections as close as possible. However, more work is needed to determine whether a lower panel would perform as well in humans, who have more genetic and clinical variation than rats.
Samples of reactions
In their study, the researchers also identified some patterns of host reactions to different types of infections. In rats with bacterial-infected, proteins disguised by neutrophils were seen more prominently, which was expected because neutrophils responded to more bacterial infections than viral infections.
Viral infections on the other hand trigger protein activity from T-cells and NK cells, which are usually more responsive to viral infections. A sensor that produced a strong signal belonged to a prostate called Granzium B, which activates programmed cell death. Researchers found the sensor was highly active in the lungs of viral-infected rats, and in response included both NK and T cells.
In order to provide sensors in mice, the researchers injected them directly into the trachea, but they are now developing a L-version version for human use that can be given using a nebulizer or respirator like an asthma respirator. They’re also working on tracking results using a respirator instead of a urine test, which could lead to results even faster.